The Cyberbunk
January 18, 2021

The **Advanced Encryption Standard** (**AES**), also known by its original name **Rijndael** (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈrɛindaːl]),is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.

AES is a subset of the Rijndael block cipher developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen, who submitted a proposal to NIST during the AES selection process. Rijndael is a family of ciphers with different key and block sizes. For AES, NIST selected three members of the Rijndael family, each with a block size of 128 bits, but three different key lengths: 128, 192 and 256 bits.

AES has been adopted by the U.S. government and is now used worldwide. It supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES), which was published in 1977. The algorithm described by AES is a symmetric-key algorithm, meaning the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data.

What is the expanded key size of AES-192? Explanation: AES-192 has an expanded key size of 52 words. Explanation: The matrices are called states. Explanation: In AES the 4×4 **bytes** matrix key is transformed into a keys of size **44 bytes**.

128-bit encryption is a data/file encryption technique that uses a 128-bit key to encrypt and decrypt data or files.

It is one of the most secure encryption methods used in most modern encryption algorithms and technologies. 128-bit encryption is considered to be logically unbreakable.

128-bit encryption primarily refers to the length of the encryption or decryption key. It is considered secure because it would take massive computation and virtually thousands of years to be cracked. For example, it would take 2128 different combinations to break the encryption key, which is out of reach for even the most powerful computers.

128-bit encryption is implemented in most network/Internet communications technologies such as in web browsers and websites. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a popular encryption algorithm that supports 128-bit encryption.

Although 128-bit encryption is considered unbreakable, some computational models and theories are expected to break or compete it in years to come.

**AES**-**128** provides more than enough **security** margin for the [foreseeable] future. But if you're already using **AES**-256, there's no reason to change.

Today's **encryption** algorithms can be broken. Their security derives from the wildly impractical lengths of time it can take to do so. Let's say you're using a **128**-**bit** AES **cipher**. The number of possible keys with **128 bits** is 2 raised to the power of **128**, or 3.4x1038, or 340 undecillion.

The difference between **cracking** the **AES**-**128** algorithm and **AES**-256 algorithm is considered minimal. Whatever breakthrough might **crack 128**-bit will probably also crack 256-bit. In the end, **AES **has never **been cracked** yet and is safe against any brute force attacks contrary to belief and arguments.

Most certificate authorities who provide SSL security have shifted their security from **128**-**bit** to 256-**bit encryption** for their customer's interest. The **stronger** you apply **encryption** strength the more your data will be safe. A bigger key always holds a better chance of remaining secure.

The three **AES** varieties are also distinguished by the number of rounds of encryption. **AES 128** uses 10 rounds, **AES** 192 uses 12 rounds, and **AES** 256 uses 14 rounds. The more rounds, the more complex the encryption, making **AES** 256 the most secure **AES** implementation.

Unlike DES, the number of rounds in AES is variable and depends on the length of the key. AES uses 10 rounds for 128-**bit** keys, 12 rounds for 192-**bit** keys and 14 rounds for 256-**bit** keys. Each of these rounds uses a different 128-**bit** round key, which is calculated from the original AES key.

Characters are represented with 8 **bits**. hence to form **128 bit key**, create a string having 16 chars (16*8=**128**), e.g. "abcdefgh12345678".

16 bytes

A **128 bit key** takes up 16 bytes of space -- just the raw **bits** that the processor uses. There is nothing special, no translation. An encoding is a mapping of **bits** to something that has meaning.

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